A network of blood vessels and tissue that protects the brain from
harmful substances, but can also prevent anticancer drugs from reaching
A flexible tube used to deliver fluids into (or withdraw fluids
from) the body.
Drugs used to treat cancer. These include those being used as best
standard of care in this trial.
Treatment with anticancer drugs.
An acute infectious disease caused by certain toxigenic strains
of Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
The ability of a drug to produce the desired therapeutic effect.
Elongation factor 2 (EF-2)
A protein involved in protein synthesis in cells.
A type of cell that surrounds nerve cells and holds them in place.
Glial cells also insulate nerve cells from each other.
A Gray is the amount of energy absorbed by ionising radiation, one
joule of energy per kilogram of tissue.
Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS)
A standard way of measuring the ability of cancer patients to perform
ordinary tasks. The Karnofsky Performance scores range from 0 to
100. A higher score means the patient is better able to carry out
daily activities. KPS may be used to determine a patient's prognosis,
to measure changes in a patient's ability to function, or to decide
if a patient could be included in a clinical trial.
Cancerous. Malignant tumours can invade and destroy nearby tissue
and spread to other parts of the body.
Mitomycin-C is chemotherapy that is given as a treatment for several
different types of cancer.
A group of anticancer drugs.
A study where the test drug is known to all parties involved.
The activity of drugs in the body over a period of time, including
the processes by which drugs are absorbed, distributed in the body,
localized in the tissues, and excreted.
Cancer that is increasing in scope or severity.
Molecules made up of amino acids that are needed for the body to
function properly. Proteins are the basis of body structures such
as skin and hair and of substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and
The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons,
and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumours. Radiation
may come from a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation
therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the
body near cancer cells. Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive
substance, such as a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, that circulates
throughout the body. Also called radiotherapy.
A study in which the participants are assigned by chance to separate
groups that compare different treatments; neither the researchers
nor the participants can choose which group. Using chance to assign
people to groups means that the groups will be similar and that
the treatments they receive can be compared objectively.
Cancer that has returned after a period of time during which the
cancer could not be detected. The cancer may come back to the same
site as the original (primary) tumour or to another place in the
body. Distant recurrence is termed metastasis.
Stereotactic (gamma knife) radiosurgery
A surgical procedure that uses a computer and a three-dimensional
scanning device to find a tumour site and guide the removal of tissue.
Involving the whole body.
The way a drug is tolerated by the body.
A protein essential for the transport and supply of iron to cells.
Surgical removal of part of a tumour.
Arising from or occurring in a single location.
Having to do with one side of the body.