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Blood-brain barrier
A network of blood vessels and tissue that protects the brain from harmful substances, but can also prevent anticancer drugs from reaching the brain.

A flexible tube used to deliver fluids into (or withdraw fluids from) the body.

Chemotherapeutic agents
Drugs used to treat cancer. These include those being used as best standard of care in this trial.

Treatment with anticancer drugs.

An acute infectious disease caused by certain toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

The ability of a drug to produce the desired therapeutic effect.

Elongation factor 2 (EF-2)
A protein involved in protein synthesis in cells.

Glial cells
A type of cell that surrounds nerve cells and holds them in place. Glial cells also insulate nerve cells from each other.

Gray (Gy)
A Gray is the amount of energy absorbed by ionising radiation, one joule of energy per kilogram of tissue.

Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS)
A standard way of measuring the ability of cancer patients to perform ordinary tasks. The Karnofsky Performance scores range from 0 to 100. A higher score means the patient is better able to carry out daily activities. KPS may be used to determine a patient's prognosis, to measure changes in a patient's ability to function, or to decide if a patient could be included in a clinical trial.

Cancerous. Malignant tumours can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

Mitomycin-C therapy
Mitomycin-C is chemotherapy that is given as a treatment for several different types of cancer.

A group of anticancer drugs.

A study where the test drug is known to all parties involved.

The activity of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes by which drugs are absorbed, distributed in the body, localized in the tissues, and excreted.

Cancer that is increasing in scope or severity.

Molecules made up of amino acids that are needed for the body to function properly. Proteins are the basis of body structures such as skin and hair and of substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and antibodies.

Radiation therapy
The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumours. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near cancer cells. Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, that circulates throughout the body. Also called radiotherapy.

Randomised [study]
A study in which the participants are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments; neither the researchers nor the participants can choose which group. Using chance to assign people to groups means that the groups will be similar and that the treatments they receive can be compared objectively.

Cancer that has returned after a period of time during which the cancer could not be detected. The cancer may come back to the same site as the original (primary) tumour or to another place in the body. Distant recurrence is termed metastasis.

Stereotactic (gamma knife) radiosurgery
A surgical procedure that uses a computer and a three-dimensional scanning device to find a tumour site and guide the removal of tissue.

Involving the whole body.

The way a drug is tolerated by the body.

A protein essential for the transport and supply of iron to cells.

Tumour debulking
Surgical removal of part of a tumour.

Arising from or occurring in a single location.

Having to do with one side of the body.

















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